Novial was created by the Danish linguist, Otto Jespersen in 1928, of whom was also one of the co-authors of Ido. Both of the languages have vocabularies based off of the Germanic and Romance languages, but are different grammatically in several important aspects. Comparisons among Ido, Novial, and other notable international auxiliary languages have formed an important part in interlinguistic study. For example, both Ido and Novial were two of the several languages studied by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA), which helped in the development of Interlingua. The purpose of this article is to create an overview of the relevant differences between Ido and Novial, as well as similarities.

Novial is more isolated, and to Jespersen's point of view, more natural.

Alphabets and pronunciationEdit

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Both languages are written using the modern Latin alphabet without diacritics.

In the Phonetic Novial spelling system (1928, 1930), the main differences between the Novial vocabulary and other systems comes from the suppression of c and z. The letter, s, plays an important role, but tends to mislead the visual appearance of some words (sientie = science, sesa = cease, sivil(i) = civil).[1]

Ido IPA Novial
A, a /a/ A, a
B, b /b/ B, b
C, c /ts/ TS, ts
CH, ch; /tʃ/ CH, ch
D, d /d/ D, d
E, e /e/ or /ɛ/ E, e
F, f /f/ F, f
G, g /ɡ/ G, g
Dj, dj /dʒ/ J, j
H, h /h/ H, h
I, i /i/ I, i
J, j /ʒ/ J, j
K, k /k/ K, k
L, l /l/ L, l
M, m /m/ M, m
N, n /n/ N, n
O, o /o/ or /ɒ/ O, o
P, p /p/ P, p
QU, qu /kw/ or /kv/ QU, qu
R, r /r/ R, r
S, s /s/ S, s (also Z,z)
SH, sh /ʃ/ SH, sh
T, t /t/ T, t
U, u /u/ U, u
W, w /w/ W, w (before a vowel)

U, u (after a vowel)

V, v /v/ V, v
X, x /ks/ or /ɡz/ X, x
Y, y /j/ Y, y
Z, z /z/ Z, z (also S, s)

Personal pronounsEdit

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singular plural indef.
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
familiar formal m. f. n. pan-gender m. f. n. pan-gender
English I you (thou) you he she it he/it we you       they one
Ido me tu vu il(u) el(u) ol(u) lu ni vi ili; eli; oli; li on(u)
Novial me vu vu lo la lu(m) le nus vus los las lus les on

Verbal systemsEdit

The grammatical systems of Ido and Novial differ from each other to a great extent in the way that the tenses, moods, and voices of verbs are expressed. Both use a combination of auxiliary verbs and verb endings; however, Novial uses much more auxiliary verbs and much less endings, unlike Ido, which uses only one auxiliary verb and numerous verb endings.

As with most devised international auxiliary languages, all verb forms in Ido and Novial are independent of persons and number.

Language samplesEdit

This is the Lord's Prayer in both languages for comparison:

Patro nia, qua esas en la cielo,
tua nomo santigesez;
tua regno advenez;
tua volo facesez
quale en la cielo tale anke sur la tero.
Donez a ni cadie l'omnidiala pano,
e pardonez a ni nia ofensi,
quale anke ni pardonas a nia ofensanti,
e ne duktez ni aden la tento,
ma liberigez ni del malajo.
Nusen Patre, kel es in siele,
mey vun nome bli sanktifika,
mey vun regno veni;
mey on fa vun volio
kom in siele anke sur tere.
Dona a nus disidi li omnidiali pane,
e pardona a nus nusen ofensos,
kom anke nus pardona a nusen ofensantes,
e non dukte nus en tentatione,
ma liberisa nus fro malu.

See alsoEdit



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