Languages Wiki
Eastern Jebel
General information
Spoken in

Flag of Sudan.png Sudan

Number of speakers

67,800 (most are Gaam)

Divisions Nilo-Saharan
  • Eastern Sudanic
    • Eastern
      • Eastern Jebel

The rough location of the Eastern Jebel languages, in the An Nil al Azraq province.

The Eastern Jebel languages are a group of Eastern Sudanic languages spoken in Sudan's An Nil al Azraq province. They consist of four languages in two groups:

Gaam has an esimated 40-80,000 number of speakers, while the members of the Aka-Kelo-Molo group are on the verge of extinction, with a total of all three the languages having only 600 speakers.


  • Eastern Jebel languages on Ethnologue
  • Malik Agaar Ayre & M. Lionel Bender, Preliminary Gaam-English-Gaam Dictionary. Addis Abeba 1980.
  • M. Lionel Bender. "The Eastern Jebel Languages of Sudan". Afrika und Übersee 80 (1997), 81 (1998):189-215, 39-64.
  • W. J. Crewe. "The Phonological Features of the Ingessana Language". 1975
  • E. E. Evans-Pritchard, "Ethnological Observations in Dar Fung", Sudan Notes and Records 15.1, 1932. pp. 1-61.
  • F. S. & J. Lister. "The Ingessana Language: A Preliminary Description", Journal of Ethiopian Studies 4.1, 1966. pp. 41-44.
  • B. Z. Seligman. "Notes on Two Languages Spoken in the Sennar Province of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan", Zeitschrift für Kolonialsprachen 2.4, 1912. pp.297-308.
  • Timothy M. Stirtz. "Phonology and Orthography in Gaahmg", in ed. Leoma C. Gilley, Occasional Papers in the Study of Sudanese Languages No. 9, Entebbe: SIL-Sudan 2004.
  • Sisto Verri. "Il Linguaggio degli Ingessana nell'Africa Occidentale", Anthropos 50, 1955. pp. 282-318.
  • Eastern Jebel languages on English Wikipedia

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